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The Five Takeaways of Deconstruction: Buffalo ReUse

Buffalo, like many other cities in America, was a once booming city of industry in the late 19th and early 20th century.  It was a manufacturing powerhouse, located squarely at the western end of the Erie Canal.  Cars, consumer goods, railroad cars, steel, grain storage, were some of the major industries here.

Grand theatres, office buildings, and homes sprung up to accommodate the growing middle class.  At one point, it even rivaled New York City as one of the wealthiest cities in the United States.  Beautiful buildings and parks proliferated all over the city, from such names as Frank Lloyd Wright, Louis Sullivan, and Frederick Law Olmsted.  However, after the Depression, industries went out of business and never regenerated.  People fled to the suburbs, or to other cities.  Currently, Buffalo is a city estimated to have 268,900 residents, of which this number is declining.  Approximately 10,000 houses lay empty.

With empty houses comes a number of issues, including blight, crime, vandalism, and a reduction in community.  The city has plans to demolish 5,000 houses in the next couple of years.

Simply demolishing these houses and putting the rubble into a landfill seems to be the easy and quick short term solution.  However, what about the most efficient long term solution?  This is where deconstruction comes in.

“Deconstruction, or ‘green demolition’, is the process of taking down a building in the opposite way it was assembled, so that as much of the building material can be salvaged and reused.  We use a 10,000 pound all-terrain forklift, to complement human labour, and it has proven to be a more efficient, cost-effective, and economically practical approach than hand deconstruction,”  describes Rachel Matthews, Volunteer Coordinator at Buffalo ReUse, a not-for-profit social enterprise in Buffalo, New York.

From a materials perspective, the process of demolition by Buffalo ReUse is incredibly efficient compared to a conventional demolition.

“We can effectively reclaim up to 50% of the tonnage of a house that would have otherwise been discarded – including architectural detail, antique items, and good quality building material that you can’t find in houses today,” she explains.

Caesandra Seawell and Rachel Mathews of Buffalo ReUse provides the five takeaways of deconstruction below.

1.  Cities all over the US are beginning to realize the benefits of deconstruction.

With the ability to recover so many valuable resources from a large stock of old houses, former boomtowns in the Rust Belt have seen the growth of green demolition/salvage social enterprises.

“For example, in Pittsburgh there’s Construction Junction, in New York there’s Sustainable South Bronx, in Washington State there’s New Heights Construction, and in Baltimore there’s The Loading Dock.  Similar programs have also popped up in Portland and Detroit,” explains Mathews.

2.  Construction waste makes up about 20% of landfill waste in the US.

Without so much of a thought, many old buildings are demolished, reduced to a pile of rubble, and a new building is plopped into its place.  Debris is cleared away and dumped in a landfill.  Plenty of this building material is valuable and recyclable, such as wood, metal, concrete, paper and plastic.

3. The economics of demolition differs from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.

Seawell explains the costs of deconstruction versus demolition.

“The average two-story house costs between twelve to sixteen thousand dollars to demolish, whether it’s regular demolition or deconstruction.  This yields about 45 tons of rubble.  However, with deconstruction, the difference is that the owner gets a tax deduction for donating the materials that are salvaged and recycled – this is usually around $8,000 or so,” she explains.

“The cost of the deconstruction is based on a couple things – equipment rental, cost of throwing material in the landfill, whether or not there is asbestos in the building, sewing cuts and labour,” says Seawell.

Prices also vary between counties.

“The one challenge we have is the cost of landfill.  In Buffalo, a ton of debris costs about $25 to dispose, which is very cheap compared to other cities on the East Coast such as New York.  In NYC for example, it costs about $110 a ton, so contractors make sure to separate and divert materials.  So, conventional demolition is so popular in Buffalo because it’s so inexpensive and quick.  It costs $1,125.00 to use the landfill and bury a house, while if you were looking at NYC, it would cost $4,950 just to use the landfill.”

4.  Deconstruction is a great way to salvage a piece, or pieces, of history.

Beyond the economic benefits of deconstruction, the simple fact exists that deconstruction yields some really cool stuff.  Visiting ReSOURCE, I came across early 20th century door handles, 1950s light fixtures, stained glass windows, vases, paintings, chandeliers, sinks, and beautiful cabinets, copper ceiling tiles, and a bevy of other bric-a-brac.  Most of these things were constructed during a time where quality was important, and planned obsolescence was not a standard.

5.   Deconstruction is also a way to engage the community.

Buffalo ReUse has found that deconstruction has had a number of knock-on effects.  First, is that deconstruction has helped to remove abandoned houses, which are seen as liabilities in the city.  The organization has also hired and trained local people, many of them youth from low income neighbourhoods.  The store, ReSOURCE, has been able to sell low cost items for people in the neighbourhood.

The organization has also engaged its neighbours in urban planning, envisioning how vacant spaces would take shape in their community.

“Ideally, we want to transform all of the vacant lots in our target area into gardens, parks, safe pass-thrus, greenhouses, and other spaces that benefit and beautify the neighbourhood,” explains Seawell.

“On top of that, we also want to continue to plant trees, hold workshops, empower the community, and promote environmental stewardship,” she adds.

It is clear that Buffalo ReUse has some lofty goals and big ideas.  Like their deconstructions, with a little elbow grease they can make these things happen.

Thanks to Rachel Mathews and Caesandra Seawell in writing this article.  More information about Buffalo ReUse can be found at http://www.buffaloreuse.org.

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Filed under Architecture, Curiosities, Environment

The Five Takeaways of Urban Exploration: Sylvain Margaine

I had always been fascinated by old, decaying buildings and what was contained within them – there is a certain romance to them, dreaming of what they were used for, what kind of people were in them, why they were abandoned – however, as a bit of a wimp I never dared venture into them.  Who knew what lurked inside?

Sylvain Margaine, on the other hand, is a seasoned urban explorer and has explored hundreds of abandoned buildings.

Urban exploration is the examination of the unseen or off-limits parts of urban areas or industrial facilities, such as factories, storm sewers, old hospitals, offices, or schools.

Sylvain Margaine is a French engineer who lives in Brussels, and has been doing urban exploration since he was a child, along with his father.

“My interest has evolved since I was a child.  Whereas before I did it as an adventure, over time I have become more conscious of the heritages of the buildings, and noted that these heritages disappeared when they were destroyed.  It has become a documentary hobby in a way, particularly when I began to  bring my camera with me five or so years ago.  I had this realization that so many of these buildings, built for utilitarian reasons – factories, subways, hospitals – could also be beautiful.”

Since then, Sylvain has documented these buildings on his website, with hundreds still to come.  Below, Sylvain describes his five takeaways of urban exploration.

1.  Sometimes abandoned structures have some strange guests.

Sylvain has come across a bevy of people in the many abandoned structures he’s visited.  “I’ve seen photographers, other urban explorers, squatters, drug addicts – it’s different depending where you are.  The one time where it was a little bit scary was in the UK, when I visited an abandoned mental hospital.  Throughout the 1970s and 1990s, a lot of hospitals shut down due to the improvement in medical techniques, better facilities, and new drugs, and many patients were released.  This one particular hospital I visited, a former patient was inside, and insisted that he show me around, and that we have dinner together – he ended up being really nice, but when you’re in a place like that, the imagination plays tricks on you.”

Sylvain recommends shouting a big hello when first walking into an abandoned building, so as to not startle the person, or yourself, if there are some unexpected guests.

2. To go urban exploring, it’s best to bring at least some gloves, rubber boots, a lamp and some spares, and a multitool.

Sylvain changes the list of items to bring with him depending on the conditions of the building.  However, there is a standard set of items he brings with him every time.

“There are four things that I find very important to bring.  First, gloves are important and people often forget these – people will scrape their hands when climbing around or examining things.  Rubber shoes are also important to keep your feet dry and to protect them.  Lamps are also important to bring – there was a time when I was leading a tour in Paris’ catacombs with five people, we didn’t bring maps and we got lost, and a couple people’s lamps burnt out.  It was very scary, with all of us in the dark with all those human remains.  Now I always bring spare batteries and spare lamps, or both.  The last thing to bring with you is a multi-tool and batteries – one time I got locked in a room when the door shut behind me.  However, with the multi-tool, I was able to open the door again.”

Sylvain suggests a couple extra things.

“It depends on the building – a camera, tripod, lenses, gas masks if the air is foul or contaminated.  Also, I find a yellow jacket helps for safety, and in case anyone is suspicious of what you’re doing, to look like you’re working.”

Sylvain suggests that other people he’s met like to bring other things, like a Maglite or tools – however, he much prefers to store extra things in his trunk and come back out to get them.

Photo from The Horror Labs or The Veterinary School of Anderlecht, by Sylvain Margaine

3.  It’s also a wise idea to bring a friend.

Sylvain also suggests bringing a friend or two, or going in a group, particularly when going into unfamiliar territory.  For example, when going to a local veterinary hospital in Brussels that had been closed for almost 20 years, Sylvain had to enter through a hole in the ground, and then fell into a deep and dank basement.  When he turned his headlamp, he was surrounded by preserved animals and dozens and dozens of rats.

“It was like a horror movie,” he shudders.

It is times like that when a friend can come in handy as support or to get help.
4.  Old buildings are like a puzzle.

Most of the time however, urban exploration is not as frightening as it may seem, and it’s the intellectual challenge that loops Sylvain in.

“First, you have to identify access points to get into the building, and when you are in the building, you have to find the hatch that will give you roof access – you end up learning intimately about architecture from different centuries.  For example, it can take hours to get from Point A to Point B even though its very close – sometimes you have to go through a ventilation shaft to get to the other side of a wall,”  he explains.

As an engineer, Sylvain is always up for a good puzzle.

5.  To stay out of trouble in urban exploration, it’s best to look like you’re not causing trouble (and actually not cause trouble).

I ask Sylvain if he’s ever gotten into trouble while urban exploring.

“Nothing serious – I’ve never been arrested, but at times it’s been very close.  I’ve been stopped by security many times.  However, because they see me with cameras, not smashing, stealing or spray painting – only documenting – they recognize that and are accepting,” Sylvain says.

“It also helps that I have prepared a speech to explain what I do – and it tends to turn out good,” he laughs.

More about Sylvain’s urban exploration can be found at http://www.forbidden-places.net/ and his book can be found at http://www.forbidden–places.net/book.php.


Filed under Hobbies